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Neurons, also called nerve cells, are the fundamental units of the nervous system. These are responsible for transmitting and receiving signals from the brain.
A typical neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and a single axon. Neurons are of three types: Sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Sensory neurons respond to stimuli such as touch, sound, or light that affect the cells of the sensory organs and send signals to the spinal cord or brain. Motor neurons allow the brain and spinal cord to communicate with muscles, organs, and glands all over the body. Interneurons are neural intermediaries found in your brain and spinal cord.