Algorithmic decision-making: The future of decision making

Equity in algorithmic decision-making.

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Algorithmic decision-making has become an integral part of modern society, influencing various aspects of our lives, ranging from personalized recommendations on digital platforms to critical decisions in the healthcare and criminal justice sectors.

The utilization of algorithms promises increased efficiency and accuracy in decision-making processes. However, it has also raised concerns regarding potential biases, lack of transparency, and ethical implications. This study explores the challenges associated with algorithmic decision-making and proposes avenues for rethinking and improving the current approach.

Algorithms influence various decisions, from healthcare screenings to resource allocation and ad targeting. When used appropriately, they can enhance efficiency and equity. However, the paper “Designing Equitable Algorithms,” published in Nature Computational Science, warns that supposedly fair algorithms might perpetuate disparities, particularly concerning race, ethnicity, and gender.

Authored by Stanford Law Associate Professor Julian Nyarko, Executive Director of the Stanford Computational Policy Lab at Stanford university Alex Chohlas-Wood, and co-authors from Harvard University, the study underscores the need to address unintended harmful consequences resulting from the widespread use of algorithmic decision-making in all aspects of life.

Nyarko, who focuses much of his scholarship on how computational methods can be used to study questions of legal and social scientific importance, said, “A decision-maker can define criteria for what they think is a fair process and strictly adhere to those criteria, but in many contexts, it turns out that this means that they end up making decisions that are harmful to marginalized groups.”

In algorithmic decision-making, Professor Julian Nyarko cited the example of diabetes screening to illustrate a common challenge. When algorithms are designed to be “race-blind” to ensure fairness, they might inadvertently exclude certain high-risk patients, such as Asians with a higher predisposition to diabetes. While these race-blind algorithms may seem technically fair, they can lead to inequitable outcomes by not considering relevant factors for specific populations.

Despite such well-known results in the field, many researchers and practitioners still prioritize strict fairness criteria. Nyarko emphasizes the need for a thorough discussion about the motivations behind advocating for fairness constraints. It’s crucial to question whether formal fairness criteria genuinely align with ethical decision-making and if adherence to race-blindness is intrinsically desirable or simply a heuristic leading to fairer outcomes. Addressing these normative and ethical questions will help progress toward a clearer understanding of fairness in algorithmic decisions and potentially foster more consistent approaches.

In their paper, Professor Julian Nyarko and his co-authors address the debates surrounding algorithmic fairness, especially in medical contexts, by providing a comprehensive framework. They identify three typical fairness constraints: blinding demographic attributes like race, equalizing decision rates across groups, and equalizing error rates. While these constraints may seem intuitive, they can lead to undesirable outcomes for individuals and society.

The paper offers valuable recommendations for algorithm training, cautioning against “label bias,” where the predicted outcome differs from the actual decision makers’ goals. For instance, algorithms predicting recidivism in criminal justice might focus on rearrest rates due to data availability, but this can introduce biases based on policing disparities. The study challenges the notion that more data constantly improve algorithmic decisions, highlighting the importance of carefully considering what the algorithm is trained to predict and its potential consequences.

Stanford Law School is renowned for its excellence in legal scholarship and education. It produces influential alumni who shape law, politics, business, and technology decisions. The faculty members are highly accomplished, engaging in Supreme Court arguments, congressional testimonies, and impactful legal research. The school’s model of legal education emphasizes interdisciplinary training, practical experience, a global outlook, and a solid commitment to public service. Through its progressive approach, Stanford Law School promotes positive change within the legal field and beyond.

The study summarizes the key insights and recommendations for rethinking algorithmic decision-making. It underscores the importance of addressing biases, enhancing transparency, and embracing ethical considerations to build fair, accountable, and trustworthy algorithms. By combining human judgment’s strengths with algorithms’ power, we can create decision-making systems that genuinely serve the best interests of individuals and society.

Journal Reference:

  1. Chohlas-Wood, A., Coots, M., Goel, S. et al. Designing equitable algorithms. Nature Computational Science. DOI:10.1038/s43588-023-00485-4.