Big Bang Theory is only that describes theory about the origin of the universe. According to it, the universe started with a small singularity, then inflated over the next 13.8 billion years to the cosmos.
By opposing it, various scientists tried to prove that the universe might have come about in a much simpler way. For example, ‘No Boundary Proposal‘ by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking and Alexander Vilenkin’s ‘Tunneling Proposal‘. But a new study by the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Potsdam in collaboration with the Perimeter Institute in Canada suggests that there is still no replacement found for the Big Bang Theory yet.
According to the data from Planck’s satellite mission, “the universe was made up of a hot, dense soup of particles some 13.8 billion years ago. It then started to expand and still expanding. This theory is also known as ‘Hot Big Bang Theory’. While cosmologists still fail at describing what the very first stages of this so-called Big Bang were like.”
On the other side, the alternatives ‘No Boundary Proposal’ and ‘Tunneling Proposal’ suggest that the universe in its original state was finite. It also suggests that the universe has emerged from quantum tunneling.
Although, scientists calculated the implications of these two proposals and realized that these were not true alternatives to the Big Bang theory. Scientists then applied Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle as a mathematical model to check the “no-boundary” and “tunneling” proposals.
They found that the models showed both smooth and irregular, more crumpled universes that could have theoretically tunneled out of nothing. Additionally, the more irregular and crumpled the universes are, the more likely such tunneling becomes.
Research lead Jean-Luc Lehners said, “Hence the “no-boundary proposal” does not imply a large universe like the one we live in, but rather tiny curved universes that would collapse immediately. As such, despite the irregularities attached to it, the Big Bang theory isn’t something that can easily be dismissed.”
Now, scientists are trying to find out the mechanism behind these large quantum fluctuations, and what kept them in check under rather extreme conditions.
Scientists said, “It seems that the more we try to figure out the origins of the universe itself, the more baffling and puzzling it becomes.”