Apolipoprotein A-IV, known as ApoA-IV, is a plasma protein. Levels of ApoA-IV increment after the digestion of foods, especially food high in unsaturated fats, for example, olive oil. Larger amounts of ApoA-IV in the blood have been accounted for to be related with bring down rates of cardiovascular disease.
New research from the Keenan Research Center for Biomedical Science (KRCBS) of St. Michael’s Hospital shows that ApoA-IV is an inhibitory factor for platelets, which are little platelets that assume a key part in multiple diseases, especially in bleeding and cardiovascular diseases.
These new discoveries propose that ApoA-IV is a blocker of platelet surface glycoproteins GPIIbIIIa (likewise named integrin αIIβ3). Integrin αIIβ3 is a platelet receptor that is important for platelets to bunch together in the blood (called platelet accumulation). Platelet aggregation can cause vessel occlusion that blocks bloodstream, prompting thrombosis, which is the most widely recognized reason for mortality and morbidity around the world.
Dr. Heyu Ni, Platform Director for Hematology, Cancer and Immunological Diseases at the KRCBS said, “Platelet aggregation can save lives because it can stop bleeding in damaged vessels. But we usually don’t want platelets to block blood flow in the vessels. This is thrombosis, and if vessel occlusion occurs in the heart or brain, it can cause heart attack, stroke or death.”
Platelets bind together with a progression of connectors. For one platelet to bond to another, the platelet receptor integrin αIIβ3 first ties to fibrinogen—a plenteous protein that extensions platelets in blood—and fibrinogen molecules at that point tie another integrin αIIβ3 on a second platelet. At that point fibrinogen and likely likewise different proteins enable numerous platelets to tie each other, promoting platelet aggregation.
Examining both lab models and humans, scientists found that ApoA-IV can link to the integrin αIIβ3 and block fibrinogen binding, decreasing platelet aggregation in a vessel. The ApoA-IV protein can also change its shape to accommodate increased blood flow, and become more effective to protect vessels from complete blockage.
Dr. Ni said, “This is the first study to link ApoA-IV with platelets and thrombosis. With this work, we have also explained why higher levels of ApoA-IV can slow down plaque build-up in blood vessels, known as atherosclerosis because this process is also related to platelet function.”
The specialists likewise analyzed ApoA-IV’s association with food. After each dinner, platelets are invigorated, which makes it less demanding for them to bond together or cling to white blood cells. ApoA-IV increments in circling blood very quickly after dinners containing unsaturated fats and abatements platelet hyperactivity and holding, accordingly diminishing the irritation after meals and the danger of heart attack and stroke.
The examination likewise found that ApoA-IV has its own circadian rhythm. It is most dynamic overnight and slightest dynamic early in the day.
Dr. Ni said, “Mother Nature wants us to sleep well. So we are protected by this protein while we sleep, and most likely to experience a cardiovascular event after waking up in the morning.”
Scientists are excited because they show that foods with high unsaturated fats, along with appropriate sleep patterns, create the perfect combination for the protein ApoA-IV to play a positive role in reducing the chances of cardiovascular disease in the form of atherosclerosis, heart attack, or stroke.
Dr. Ni explained said, “This new knowledge has many potential applications. Future studies will focus on better understanding this protein and how to harness its protective potential to build therapies targeted at cardiovascular disease and other diseases that arise from platelet activation and aggregation.”
The research published today in Nature Communications.