New theoretical research has shown that Stephen Hawking was right about black holes

Stephen Hawking was right about black holes, although not completely.

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Stephen Hawking suggested that the spontaneous production and annihilation of pairs of particles must occur close to the event horizon (the region beyond which there is no escape from the gravitational pull of a black hole). He did this by cleverly combining quantum physics and Einstein’s theory of gravity.

A particle and its antiparticle are formed from the quantum field for a very brief period of time, and then they instantly annihilate. However, Hawking radiation can occasionally escape when a particle enters a black hole. This would eventually cause black holes to disappear, according to Hawking.

Researchers at Radboud University reexamined this process in this new study to determine whether or not the existence of an event horizon is essential. They used a combination of physics, astronomy, and mathematical approaches to investigate what would happen if such pairs of particles were to form near black holes. The study demonstrated that particles can also be produced well beyond this boundary.

This new study suggests that though not entirely, Stephen Hawking was correct about black holes. Black holes will eventually disappear due to Hawking radiation, although the event horizon is less important than once thought. The curvature of spacetime and gravity both contribute to this radiation. This implies that all massive objects in the universe, such as star ruins, will eventually vanish.

Michael Wondrak of Radboud University said, “We demonstrate that, in addition to the well-known Hawking radiation, there is also a new form of radiation.”

Walter van Suijlekom of Radboud University said, “We show that far beyond a black hole, the curvature of spacetime plays a big role in creating radiation. The particles are already separated there by the tidal forces of the gravitational field.”

“Whereas it was previously thought that no radiation was possible without the event horizon, this study shows that this horizon is unnecessary.”

Heino Falcke of Radboud University said, “That means that objects without an event horizon, such as the remnants of dead stars and other large objects in the universe, also have this sort of radiation. And, after a very long period, that would lead to everything in the universe eventually evaporating, just like black holes. This changes our understanding of Hawking radiation and our view of the universe and its future.”

Journal Reference:

  1. Michael F. Wondrak, Walter D. van Suijlekom, Heino Falcke. Gravitational Pair Production and Black Hole Evaporation. Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.48550/arXiv.2305.18521