Fresh evidence for new Physics in the universe

There may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.

These Hubble Space Telescope images showcase two of the 19 galaxies analyzed in a project to improve the precision of the universe's expansion rate, a value known as the Hubble constant. The color-composite images show NGC 3972 (left) and NGC 1015 (right), located 65 million light-years and 118 million light-years, respectively, from Earth. The yellow circles in each galaxy represent the locations of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables
These Hubble Space Telescope images showcase two of the 19 galaxies analyzed in a project to improve the precision of the universe's expansion rate, a value known as the Hubble constant. The color-composite images show NGC 3972 (left) and NGC 1015 (right), located 65 million light-years and 118 million light-years, respectively, from Earth. The yellow circles in each galaxy represent the locations of pulsating stars called Cepheid variables. Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

By using NASA‘s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have precisely measured the expansion rate of the universe since it was first calculated nearly a century ago. And the most interesting, the results are insisting physicists consider that they might see confirmation of something unforeseen at work in the universe.

The finding confirms a nagging discrepancy showing the universe to be expanding faster now than was expected from its trajectory seen shortly after the big bang. According to astronomers, there may be new physics to explain the inconsistency.

Scientists are using Hubble since six years to measure the distances to galaxies. Those estimations are utilized to compute how quick the universe extends with time, an esteem known as the Hubble consistent. The group’s new examination broadens the quantity of stars dissected to separations up to 10 times more remote into space than past Hubble comes about.

Lead researcher, Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) said, “The community is really grappling with understanding the meaning of this discrepancy.”

This illustration shows three steps astronomers used to measure the universe's expansion rate (Hubble constant) to an unprecedented accuracy, reducing the total uncertainty to 2.3 percent. The measurements streamline and strengthen the construction of the cosmic distance ladder, which is used to measure accurate distances to galaxies near to and far from Earth. The latest Hubble study extends the number of Cepheid variable stars analyzed to distances of up to 10 times farther across our galaxy than previous Hubble results
This illustration shows three steps astronomers used to measure the universe’s expansion rate (Hubble constant) to an unprecedented accuracy, reducing the total uncertainty to 2.3 percent. The measurements streamline and strengthen the construction of the cosmic distance ladder, which is used to measure accurate distances to galaxies near to and far from Earth. The latest Hubble study extends the number of Cepheid variable stars analyzed to distances of up to 10 times farther across our galaxy than previous Hubble results.
Credits: NASA, ESA, A. Feild (STScI), and A. Riess (STScI/JHU)

Riess’s value reinforces the disparity with the expected value derived from observations of the early universe’s expansion, 378,000 years after the big bang — the violent event that created the universe roughly 13.8 billion years ago. Those measurements were made by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which maps the cosmic microwave background, a relic of the big bang. The difference between the two values is about 9 percent. The new Hubble measurements help reduce the chance that the discrepancy in the values is a coincidence to 1 in 5,000.

As Planck suggested, the Hubble constant value should now be 67 kilometers per second per megaparsec (3.3 million light-years) and could be no higher than 69 kilometers per second per megaparsec. This means that for each 3.3 million light-years more remote away a cosmic system is from us, it is moving 67 kilometers for every second quicker. Yet, Riess’ group estimated an estimation of 73 kilometers for each second per megaparsec, showing cosmic systems are moving at a speedier rate than suggested by perceptions of the early universe.

Riess illustrated a couple of conceivable clarifications for the mismatch, all identified with the 95 percent of the universe that is covered in darkness. One possibility is that dark energy, definitely known to quicken the universe, might push systems from each other with considerably more prominent — or developing — quality. This implies the speeding up itself won’t have a steady an incentive in the universe but rather changes after some time in the universe. Riess shared a Nobel Prize for the 1998 disclosure of the quickening universe.

Another thought is that the universe contains another subatomic molecule that movements near the speed of light. Such expedient particles are altogether called “dark radiation” and incorporate already known particles like neutrinos, which are made in atomic responses and radioactive rots. Not at all like an ordinary neutrino, which associates with a subatomic force, this new molecule would be influenced just by gravity and is named a “sterile neutrino.”

However, another alluring plausibility is that dark matter collaborates more emphatically with ordinary issue or radiation than already accepted.

Any of these situations would change the substance of the early universe, prompting irregularities in hypothetical models. These irregularities would bring about an off-base an incentive for the Hubble consistent, construed from perceptions of the youthful universe. This esteem would then be inconsistent with the number got from the Hubble perceptions.

Scientists haven’t answered yet on this but they will expect to work further on fine-tuning the universe’s expansion rate. So far, Riess’s team, called the Supernova H0 for the Equation of State (SH0ES), has decreased the uncertainty to 2.3 percent. Before Hubble was launched in 1990, estimates of the Hubble constant varied by a factor of two. One of Hubble’s key goals was to help astronomers reduce the value of this uncertainty to within an error of only 10 percent. Since 2005, the group has been on a quest to refine the accuracy of the Hubble constant to a precision that allows for a better understanding of the universe’s behavior.

However, scientists successfully refined the Hubble consistent value by streamlining and reinforcing the development of the inestimable separation stepping stool, which the space experts use to quantify exact separations to cosmic systems close to and a long way from Earth. The analysts have contrasted those separations and the extension of the room as estimated by the extending of light from subsiding systems. They at that point have utilized the obvious outward speed of cosmic systems at each separation to figure the Hubble steady.

Yet, the Hubble steady’s esteem is just as exact as the precision of the estimations. Stargazers can’t utilize a measuring tape to check the separations between systems. Rather, they have chosen unique classes of stars and supernovae as inestimable measuring sticks or milepost markers to decisively gauge galactic separations.

Among the most dependable for shorter separations are Cepheid factors, throbbing stars that light up and diminish at rates that compare to their inherent brilliance. Their separations, in this way, can be derived by contrasting their characteristic splendor and their clear shine as observed from Earth.

Astronomer Henrietta Leavitt was the first to recognize the utility of Cepheid variables to gauge distances in 1913. But the first step is to measure the distances to Cepheids independent of their brightness, using a basic tool of geometry called parallax. Parallax is the apparent shift of an object’s position due to a change in an observer’s point of view. This technique was invented by the ancient Greeks who used it to measure the distance from Earth to the Moon.

The most recent Hubble result depends on estimations of the parallax of eight recently broke down Cepheids in our Milky Way cosmic system. These stars are around 10 times more distant away than any concentrated already, dwelling between 6,000 light-years and 12,000 light-years from Earth, making them all the more difficult to quantify.

They pulsate at longer interims, much the same as the Cepheids saw by Hubble in far-off cosmic systems containing another dependable measuring stick, detonating stars called Type Ia supernovae. This sort of supernova flares with uniform shine and is sufficiently splendid to be seen from generally more distant away. Past Hubble perceptions contemplated 10 speedier squinting Cepheids found 300 light-years to 1,600 light-years from Earth.

To measure parallax with Hubble, the team had to gauge the apparent tiny wobble of the Cepheids due to Earth’s motion around the Sun. These wobbles are the size of just 1/100 of a single pixel on the telescope’s camera, which is roughly the apparent size of a grain of sand seen 100 miles away.

Therefore, to ensure the accuracy of the measurements, the astronomers developed a clever method that was not envisioned when Hubble was launched. The researchers invented a scanning technique in which the telescope measured a star’s position a thousand times a minute every six months for four years.

The group aligned the genuine splendor of the eight gradually throbbing stars and cross-related them with their more removed squinting cousins to fix the mistakes in their separation stepping stool. The analysts at that point thought about the brilliance of the Cepheids and supernovae in those cosmic systems with better certainty, so they could all the more precisely measure the stars’ actual shine, and in this manner figure separations to many supernovae in far-flung universes with more exactness.

Another preferred standpoint to this investigation is that the group utilized a similar instrument, Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3, to align the iridescence of both the close-by Cepheids and those in different cosmic systems, dispensing with the deliberate mistakes that are unavoidably presented by contrasting those estimations from various telescopes.

Stefano Casertano said, “Ordinarily if every six months you try to measure the change in position of one star relative to another at these distances, you are limited by your ability to figure out exactly where the star is. Using the new technique, Hubble slowly slews across a stellar target and captures the image as a streak of light.”

Reiss said, “This method allows for repeated opportunities to measure the extremely tiny displacements due to parallax. You’re measuring the separation between two stars, not just in one place on the camera, but over and over thousands of times, reducing the errors in measurement.”

Now, scientists further want to reduce the uncertainty by using data from Hubble and the European Space Agency’s Gaia space observatory, which will measure the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.

The team’s results have been accepted for publication by The Astrophysical Journal.

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